class 12 very first chap notes

 Essay about class doze 1st buck notes





Management can be an art of obtaining things completed through other folks. Management can be defined as, the process of receiving things finished with the aim of reaching goals successfully and efficiently.

Efficiency and Effectiveness

Productivity means doing the task appropriately at lowest cost although effectiveness means completing the task correctly. Though Efficiency and effectiveness are different but they are related. It is important to get management being both we. e. successful and useful.

Example: A business produces targeted 1000 models but at a higher value is effecitive but not efficient. Therefore the business must be effective and efficient it has to create 1000 devices within expense.

Characteristics of Management

1 )

Goal oriented Process: It is a goal focused process, which is undertaken to accomplish already specific and preferred objectives.

2 .

Pervasive: Administration is pervasive in character. It is employed in all types of organizations whether economical, social or political including every level.


Multidimensional: It is multidimensional as it entails management of Work, People and operations.


Continuous: This can be a continuous method i. at the. its functions are being performed by all managers simultaneously. The process of management continue till an organisation can be found for attaining its aims.


Group Activity: This can be a group activity since it consists of managing and coordinating activities of different persons as a team to attain the desired goals.


Energetic function: this can be a dynamic function since it has to adapt to the

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changing environment.


Intangible Push: It is an intagible force since it cannot be viewed but its impact are felt in the form of outcomes like whether or not the objectives happen to be met and whether people are motivated or not.

Goals of management

(A) Organizational objectives of Survival (Earning enough profits to cover cost); Profit (To Cover price and risk); & Development (To increase its future Prospects).

(B) Interpersonal Objectives of giving benefits to world like employing environmental friendly practices and giving job to disadvantaged sections of contemporary society etc .

(C) Personal Objectives because diverse personal aims of people doing work in the organization have to be reconciled with organizational aims. Importance of supervision

(1) Obtaining Group Goals: Management can be useful for achieving group goals. Manager give common direction towards the individual work in reaching the overall aim of the organisation.

(2) Raises Efficiency: Management increases productivity by using solutions in the most effective manner to minimize cost and increase productivity. (3) Makes Dynamic Enterprise: Management helps in creating Active organisation that could adopt changing situations very easily.

(4) Reaching Personal Goals: Management helps in achieving aims of individuals doing work in the enterprise.

(5) Development of Society: Supervision helps in the introduction of society by simply producing good quality products, creating employment opportunities and adopting new technology.

Management while an Art

Skill refers to skilled and personal using existing know-how to achieve wanted results. It is usually acquired through study, declaration and experience. The features of art will be as follows.

(2) Existence of theoretical expertise: In every skill systematic & organised cours should be readily available compulsorily to buy theoretical know-how.

XII –  BusinessВ StudiesВ


(2) Personalised program: The use of simple knowledge differ from person to person and so, art is a very personalised strategy.

(3) Based on practice and creativity: Fine art involves the creative practice of existing theoretical understanding.

All the features of art can be found in management so that it can be called an art.

Management being a science

Research is a systematised body...



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